There are numerous studies, some in animal models, and some in humans. Sometimes there’s disagreement. These vitamins have been associated with lower risk of miscarriage. Discuss these ﬁndings with your doctor before starting any supplements. Remember, whole food is the best way to get vitamins (except Vitamin D). Vegans do need to take extra B vitamins, especially B12.
Dietary Fat and Fertility
Increasing monounsaturated fat in diet improves fertility
In a study of some 17,000 women conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, researchers were able to deﬁne a group of "fertility foods" able to improve odds. Eating more monounsaturated fats (like olive oil) and less trans fats (like the kind found in many baked goods or fast foods) was one of the keys to increasing fertility. More on ways to encourage fertility…
Eating chocolate daily lowers miscarriage risk by 19%
The aim of this study was to examine the association between biological, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors and risk of miscarriage. Six hundred and three women aged 18–55 years whose most recent pregnancy had ended in ﬁrst trimester miscarriage More on chocolate consumption and miscarriage…
Vitamins and Miscarriage
Folate status in young overweight and obese women
Changes associated with weight reduction and increased folate intake. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009 Apr;55(2):149‐55. Ortega RM, López‐Sobaler AM, Andrés P, Rodríguez‐Rodríguez E, Aparicio A, Perea JM. Obesity lowers folate status, despite similar dietary intake; weight loss increases folate status.
Low folate status
Low folate status associated with 47% higher risk of miscarriage, may cause abnormal karyotype. Lena George, M.D., et al. Plasma Folate Levels and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion. Compared with women with plasma folate levels between 2.20 and 3.95 ng/mL, women with low (< or =2.19 ng/mL) folate levels were at increased risk of miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47), whereas women with higher folate levels (3.96-‐6.16 ng/mL and > or =6.17 ng/mL) showed no increased risk of miscarriage (odds ratio, 0.84 and odds ratio, 0.74, respectively). Low folate levels were associated with a signiﬁcantly increased risk of miscarriage when the fetal karyotype was abnormal (odds ratio, 1.95) but not when the fetal karyotype was normal (odds ratio, 1.11) or unknown (odds ratio, 1.45). More on low folate status…
Having both low folate and vitamin B6 increases the risk of miscarriage four‐fold
Homocysteine, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 concentrations were measured in plasma obtained before conception. Mean vitamin B6 concentration was lower in patients than in controls (34.0 versus 37.9 nmol/L). In addition, the risk of miscarriage tended to increase with decreasing plasma vitamin B6 and folate concentration, although the signiﬁcance of these trends was further reduced in logistic models that included age, body mass index, and both vitamins. The risk of miscarriage was four‐fold, higher among women with suboptimal plasma concentrations of both folate and vitamin B6 (folate less than or equal to 8.4 nmol/L and vitamin B6 less than or equal to 49 nmol/L) than in those with higher plasma concentrations of both vitamins (odds ratio 4.1). Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status were not associated with miscarriage risk.
Biotin: Biotin deﬁciency is associated with insulin resistance, which is common in recurrent miscarriage.
Calcium: High blood levels are associated with increased risk of miscarriage.
Choline: Low choline levels reduce embryonic growth and cardiac development. Choline has also been shown to prevent birth defects.
Chromium: May improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS, although chromium picolinate has been shown to cause birth defects at high levels.
Folic acid: Low folate is associated with a 47% increased risk of miscarriage; having both low folate and low vitamin B6 increase miscarriage risk by 310%. Folic acid may also reduce the risk for Down Syndrome.
Magnesium: Low magnesium is associated with increased risk of miscarriage; one study showed 100% of infertile women who normalized their magnesium and selenium levels went on to produce children. Low magnesium may also be associated with birth defects.
Multivitamins: lowered the risk of miscarriage by 57% in one study.
Phosphorus: low in women who miscarry.
Selenium: lower in women with repeat miscarriage. Also, 100% of previously infertile women went on to conceive within eight months of normalizing their selenium and magnesium levels.
Beta carotene: lower in women with recurrent miscarriage.
Vitamin B12: lower in women with recurrent miscarriage.
Vitamin B6: lower in women who miscarry. Also, vitamin B6 may counteract the negative impact of stress hormones on fetal growth.
Vitamin C: low in women who habitually miscarry. Also, vitamin C has been shown to increase progesterone levels.
Vitamin D: critical for fetal development; also lowers miscarriage risk by reducing inﬂammation. 93% of infertile women were found deﬁcient in vitamin D.
Vitamin E: lower in women with recurrent miscarriage. However, high levels are also linked to miscarriage and premature rupture of the membranes.
Vitamin K: low levels of vitamin K lead to miscarriage and birth defects.
Here is a summary of foods that have been shown to affect one's odds of having a miscarriage:
Dairy: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 33%, and improves fertility. Lowers homocysteine and insulin resistance.
Milk: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 40%. Also affects hormones.
Cheese: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 50%.
Butter: causes miscarriage risk to increase by 100%.
Oil: increases miscarriage risk by 60%.
Eggs: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 30%.
Fruit: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 46% to 70% in various studies.
Fiber: lowers miscarriage risk in sheep, and improves fertility in humans. Also affects hormones.
Fish and Poultry: cause miscarriage risk to drop by 15% to 30% in different studies.
Vegetables: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 40% to 50% in two studies.
Chocolate: causes miscarriage risk to drop by 19%.